Difference between revisions of "Old testament"

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Line 4: Line 4:
  
 
==Canon==
 
==Canon==
Every major denomination of Christianity disagrees about which books should be considered canon to the Old Testament and what the books should be called. They also all disagree with the Jews on the order of presentation. Because of this, they each have different old testaments.
+
Every major denomination of Christianity disagrees about which books should be considered canon in the old testament and what the books should be called. They also all disagree with the Jews on the order of presentation. Because of this, they each have different old testaments. The table below shows which books each denomination considers canon and how the group the books, however, the order of presentation is not preserved.
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
Line 11: Line 11:
 
! Catholic (46)
 
! Catholic (46)
 
! Eastern Orthodox (50)
 
! Eastern Orthodox (50)
 +
! Syrian (50)
 
! Oriental Orthodox (46)
 
! Oriental Orthodox (46)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Genesis|Bereishit]]
 
| [[Book of Genesis|Bereishit]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
Line 20: Line 22:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Exodus|Shemot]]
 
| [[Book of Exodus|Shemot]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
Line 26: Line 29:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Leviticus|Vayikra]]
 
| [[Book of Leviticus|Vayikra]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
Line 32: Line 36:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Numbers|Bamidbar]]
 
| [[Book of Numbers|Bamidbar]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
Line 38: Line 43:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Devarim]]
 
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Devarim]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
Line 47: Line 53:
 
| [[Book of Joshua|Josue]]
 
| [[Book of Joshua|Josue]]
 
| [[Book of Joshua|Iesous]]
 
| [[Book of Joshua|Iesous]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Judges|Shofetim]]
 
| [[Book of Judges|Shofetim]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
Line 56: Line 64:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Ruth|Rut]]
 
| [[Book of Ruth|Rut]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
Line 65: Line 74:
 
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
 
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Samuel]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Samuel]]
 
|-
 
|-
Line 71: Line 81:
 
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
 
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]]
  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 77: Line 88:
 
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
 
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Kings]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Kings]]
 
|-
 
|-
Line 83: Line 95:
 
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]]
 
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
 
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]]
  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 89: Line 102:
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]<br />(with [[Prayer of Manasseh]])
 
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]<br />(with [[Prayer of Manasseh]])
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 102: Line 119:
 
| [[Book of Jubilees|Jubilees]]
 
| [[Book of Jubilees|Jubilees]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 112: Line 130:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Greek Esdras|1 Esdras]]
 
| [[Greek Esdras|1 Esdras]]
 +
|
 
| [[Greek Esdras|2 Izra]]
 
| [[Greek Esdras|2 Izra]]
 
|-
 
|-
Line 118: Line 137:
 
| [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]]
 
| [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|1 Izra]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|1 Izra]]
 
|-
 
|-
Line 124: Line 144:
 
| [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 
| [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
  
 +
| [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
  
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 135: Line 157:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]]
 
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]]
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
Line 140: Line 163:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
+
|-
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
+
 
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Additions to Esther]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Machabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Machabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
 
|  
 
|  
Line 159: Line 192:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Machabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Machabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
 
|  
 
|  
Line 166: Line 200:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|3 Maccabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|3 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 174: Line 210:
 
| [[Books of Meqabyan|Meqabyan]]
 
| [[Books of Meqabyan|Meqabyan]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Latin Esdras|3 Esdras]]
 
| [[Latin Esdras|3 Esdras]]
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
Line 184: Line 221:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|4 Maccabees]]
 
| [[Books of Maccabees|4 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Job|Iyov]]
 
| [[Book of Job|Iyov]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
Line 193: Line 232:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Psalms|Tehillim]]
 
| [[Book of Psalms|Tehillim]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
Line 202: Line 242:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
 
| [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
 +
|
 
| (included with 2 Chronicles)
 
| (included with 2 Chronicles)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Mishlei]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Mishlei]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
Line 210: Line 252:
 
| [[Book of Proverbs|Messalë]]
 
| [[Book of Proverbs|Messalë]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
  
  
Line 217: Line 260:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Qoheleth]]
 
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Qoheleth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
Line 226: Line 270:
 
| [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]]
 
| [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]]
 
| [[Song of Solomon|Aisma Aismaton]]
 
| [[Song of Solomon|Aisma Aismaton]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 
| [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 
| [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
Line 237: Line 283:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]]
 
| [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]]
 +
| [[Sirach]]
 
| [[Sirach]]
 
| [[Sirach]]
 
| [[Sirach]]
 
| [[Sirach]]
Line 243: Line 290:
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
Line 249: Line 297:
 
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]]
 
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| rowspan="4" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]<br />(with [[4 Baruch]])
 
| rowspan="4" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]<br />(with [[4 Baruch]])
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Lamentations|Eikhah]]
 
| [[Book of Lamentations|Eikhah]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
Line 261: Line 311:
 
|  
 
|  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 +
| [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 
| [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 
| [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
  
Line 266: Line 317:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
 
| [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
 
| [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
  
 
+
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Second Book of Baruch|2 Baruch]]
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Yekhezqel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Yekhezqel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
|-
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
 
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Additions to Daniel]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="12" | [[Trei Asar]]
 
| rowspan="12" | [[Trei Asar]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Osee]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Osee]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
|-
 
|-
  
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
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|-
 
|-
  
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
Line 303: Line 373:
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
Line 309: Line 380:
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
Line 315: Line 387:
 
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Michaeas]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Michaeas]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
|-
 
|-
  
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
Line 327: Line 401:
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Sophonias]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Sophonias]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
Line 333: Line 408:
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
Line 339: Line 415:
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]]
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]]
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
Line 345: Line 422:
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
Line 351: Line 429:
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 364: Line 444:
 
The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.
 
The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.
  
* [[Additions to Esther]]
 
 
* [[Apocalypse of Abraham]]
 
* [[Apocalypse of Abraham]]
 
* [[Ascension of Isaiah]]
 
* [[Ascension of Isaiah]]
* [[2 Baruch]]
 
 
* [[3 Baruch]]
 
* [[3 Baruch]]
 
* [[Bel and the Dragon]]
 
* [[Bel and the Dragon]]
 
* [[Eldad and Modad]]
 
* [[Eldad and Modad]]
* [[Book of Enoch]]
 
 
* [[Second Book of Enoch]]
 
* [[Second Book of Enoch]]
 
* [[Greek Apocalypse of Moses]]
 
* [[Greek Apocalypse of Moses]]

Revision as of 15:15, 10 October 2019

An old testament is an assortment of ancient Jewish books compiled by Christians and used as the first segment of their religious scriptures known collectively as the bible, of which the old testament accounts for about three quarters. The specific books in an old testament, what they should be titled, and how they should be presented differ among every major denomination of the religion, but each branch seems to agree that all of the content considered canon in the Jewish Tanakh should be included.

Christians refer to the these books as the old testament because they believe that the covenant between Yahweh and humankind was ended through the torture and execution of Jesus, and that, before he was killed, Jesus gave humans a new covenant which is described in the New Testament. Jews, however, do not believe that the original covenant between them and Yahweh has ended because, in the Torah, Yahweh says dozens of times that the covenant will never end, not even with the coming of the messiah, and Jews don't believe Jesus was the messiah anyway since he doesn't fit the prophecy in their scriptures.

Canon

Every major denomination of Christianity disagrees about which books should be considered canon in the old testament and what the books should be called. They also all disagree with the Jews on the order of presentation. Because of this, they each have different old testaments. The table below shows which books each denomination considers canon and how the group the books, however, the order of presentation is not preserved.

Hebrew (24) Protestant (39) Catholic (46) Eastern Orthodox (50) Syrian (50) Oriental Orthodox (46)
Bereishit Genesis Genesis Genesis Genesis Genesis
Shemot Exodus Exodus Exodus Exodus Exodus
Vayikra Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus
Bamidbar Numbers Numbers Numbers Numbers Numbers
Devarim Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy
Yehoshua Joshua Josue Iesous Joshua Joshua
Shofetim Judges Judges Judges Judges Judges
Rut Ruth Ruth Ruth Ruth Ruth
Shemuel 1 Samuel 1 Kings 1 Kingdoms 1 Samuel Samuel
2 Samuel 2 Kings 2 Kingdoms 2 Samuel
Melakhim 1 Kings 3 Kings 3 Kingdoms 1 Kings Kings
2 Kings 4 Kings 4 Kingdoms 2 Kings
Divrei Hayamim 1 Chronicles 1 Paralipomenon 1 Paralipomenon 1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles 2 Paraleipomenon 2 Paraleipomenon 2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles
(with Prayer of Manasseh)
Jubilees
Enoch
1 Esdras 2 Izra
Ezra-Nehemiah Ezra 1 Esdras 2 Esdras Ezra 1 Izra
Nehemiah 2 Esdras Nehemiah
Izra Sutuel
Tobias Tobit Tobit Tobit
Judith Judith Judith Judith
Esther Esther Esther Esther Esther Esther
Additions to Esther
1 Machabees 1 Maccabees 1 Maccabees
2 Machabees 2 Maccabees 2 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
Meqabyan
3 Esdras
4 Maccabees
Iyov Job Job Job Job Job
Tehillim Psalms Psalms Psalms Psalms Psalms
Prayer of Manasseh (included with 2 Chronicles)
Mishlei Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Messalë
Tägsas
Qoheleth Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes
Shir Hashirim Song of Solomon Canticle of Canticles Aisma Aismaton Song of Songs Song of Songs
Wisdom Wisdom Wisdom Wisdom of Solomon
Ecclesiasticus Sirach Sirach Sirach
Yeshayahu Isaiah Isaias Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah
Yirmeyahu Jeremiah Jeremias Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah
(with 4 Baruch)
Eikhah Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations
Baruch Baruch Baruch
Letter of Jeremiah Letter of Jeremiah
2 Baruch
Yekhezqel Ezekiel Ezechiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel
Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel
Additions to Daniel
Trei Asar Hosea Osee Hosea Hosea Hosea
Amos Amos Amos Amos Amos
Joel Joel Joel Joel Joel
Obadiah Abdias Obadiah Obadiah Obadiah
Jonah Jonas Jonah Jonah Jonah
Micah Michaeas Micah Micah Micah
Nahum Nahum Nahum Nahum Nahium
Habakkuk Sophonias Habakkuk Habakkuk Habakkuk
Zephaniah Sophonias Zephaniah Zephaniah Zephaniah
Haggai Aggaeus Haggai Haggai Haggai
Zechariah Zacharias Zechariah Zechariah Zechariah
Malachi Malachias Malachi Malachi Malachi
Josippon

Additional Writings

The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.

Capitalization

I do not capitalize "old testament" unless I'm referring to a specific version like the Codex Alexandrinus Old Testament. I do this, not out of disrespect, but in accordance with the conventions of English usage. Because every major Christian denomination has their own old testament, you're not reading the Old Testament, but rather an old testament. In much the same way, "encyclopedia" is not capitalized because it is a category of book, but "Encyclopedia Britannica" is capitalized because it is a specific book in the category of encyclopedias.

For the same reason, I do not capitalize "bible," however, I do capitalize "New Testament" since there is effectively only one across Christianity. I also capitalize the individual books included in the compilations; there is variation, but not enough to warrant calling them a category rather than a specific book.

Criticisms

Canon

Christians have been arguing for 2,000 years (and Jews for centuries earlier) over which writings should be considered canon, and they continue to disagree to this day. If Yahweh wanted a specific canon, why didn't he reveal it to everyone everywhere? Why allow for ambiguity or debate to decide which writings are endorsed by Yahweh? Do any of them have the correct canon, and, if so, are all other denominations guilty of blasphemy for using the wrong canon? Did they fail as Christians because their bible contained books that taught them to behave differently than later Christians?

Authorship

There is much conjecture and debate about the authors of the books in the old testament canon. In most of the books, the author doesn't identify himself, and historians believe that the majority of the books are not written by either the traditionally accepted authors or the the authors named in the books.

Content

We should expect books inspired by a god to be rife with deep philosophical wisdom, full of inexplicable insight on the very foundations of the universe, and written in the most interesting way possible, but the actual content of the books of the old testament is unimpressive. Large sections of the book are dedicated to pointless lineages, bizarre animal sacrifice rituals, and long lists of strange taboos. Many stories are written multiple times in contradicting ways. Rather than provide deep wisdom, science, or enlightened morality, the authors speak of conventional wisdom of the time, describe science in basic and often flawed ways, promote slavery, encourage rape, and various other forms of barbarism. Rather than be written in an exciting manner, the book is so poorly written that most Christians who claim to believe it is the most important book ever still quickly lose interest and stop reading it.

Redaction

Most of the books of the old testament show signs of redaction, some to a staggering degree. The Torah is so disjointed that historians have proposed various solutions like the Documentary Hypothesis to account for it. None of the earliest surviving manuscripts match each other perfectly, so there are a large number of sentences where we can't say with certainty what the original wrote.

Links

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