Difference between revisions of "Old testament"

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An '''old testament''' is an assortment of ancient Jewish books compiled by [[Christianity|Christians]] and used as the first segment of their religious scriptures known collectively as the [[bible]], of which the old testament accounts for about three quarters. The specific books in an old testament, what they should be titled, and how they should be presented differ among every major denomination of the religion, but each branch seems to agree that all of the content considered canon in the Jewish [[Tanakh]] should be included.
+
An '''old testament''' is an assortment of mostly [[Judaism|Jewish]] books compiled by [[Christianity|Christians]] and used as the first segment of their [[bible]], accounting for about three quarters of the total compilation. The specific books in an old testament, what they should be titled, and how they should be presented differ among every major denomination of the religion, but each branch seems to agree that all of the content considered canon by most Jews in their [[Tanakh]] should be included.
  
Christians refer to the these books as the ''old'' testament because they believe that the covenant between Yahweh and humankind was ended through the torture and execution of [[Jesus]], and that, before he was killed, Jesus gave humans a new covenant which is described in the [[New Testament]]. Jews, however, do not believe that the original covenant between them and Yahweh has ended because, in the [[Torah]], Yahweh says dozens of times that the covenant will never end, not even with the coming of the messiah, and Jews don't believe Jesus was the messiah anyway since he doesn't fit the prophecy in their scriptures.
+
Christians refer to the these books as the ''old'' testament because they believe that the covenant between Yahweh and humankind was ended through the torture and execution of [[Jesus]], and that, before he was killed, Jesus gave humans a new covenant which is described in their [[New Testament]]. Jews, however, do not believe the original covenant between them and Yahweh has ended because, Yahweh says dozens of times in the Tanakh that the covenant will never end, Jews don't believe Jesus was the messiah, and, even if he was, they don't believe the messiah could discontinue the covenant.
  
 
==Canon==
 
==Canon==
Every major denomination of Christianity disagrees about which books should be considered canon to the Old Testament and what the books should be called. They also all disagree with the Jews on the order of presentation. Because of this, they each have different old testaments.
+
The table below shows which books each denomination considers canon and how the group the books, however, the order of presentation is not preserved.
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Hebrew (24) !! Protestant (39) !! Catholic (46) !! Eastern Orthodox (50)
+
! Hebrew (24)
 +
! Protestant (39)
 +
! Catholic (46)
 +
! Eastern Orthodox (50)
 +
! Church of the East (50)
 +
! Oriental Orthodox (46)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Genesis|Bereishit]] || [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]] || [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]] || [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
+
| [[Book of Genesis|Bereishit]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Exodus|Shemot]] || [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]] || [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]] || [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
+
| [[Book of Exodus|Shemot]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Leviticus|Vayikra]] || [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]] || [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]] || [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
+
| [[Book of Leviticus|Vayikra]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Numbers|Bamidbar]] || [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]] || [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]] || [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
+
| [[Book of Numbers|Bamidbar]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Devarim]] || [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]] || [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]] || [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
+
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Devarim]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Joshua|Yehoshua]] || [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]] || [[Book of Joshua|Josue]] || [[Book of Joshua|Iesous]]
+
| [[Book of Joshua|Yehoshua]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Josue]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Iesous]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Judges|Shofetim]] || [[Book of Judges|Judges]] || [[Book of Judges|Judges]] || [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
+
| [[Book of Judges|Shofetim]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Ruth|Rut]] || [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]] || [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]] || [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
+
| [[Book of Ruth|Rut]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Shemuel]] || [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]] || [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]] || [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Shemuel]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Samuel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]] || [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]] || [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
+
 
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Melakhim]] || [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Melakhim]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Kings]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
+
 
 +
| [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Chronicles|Divrei Hayamim]] || [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]] || [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]] || [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Chronicles|Divrei Hayamim]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]] || [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]] || [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
+
 
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]<br />(with [[Prayer of Manasseh]])
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Greek Esdras|1 Esdras]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Jubilees|Jubilees]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra-Nehemiah]] || [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]] || [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]] || rowspan="2" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Enoch|Enoch]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]] || [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Greek Esdras|1 Esdras]]
 +
|  
 +
| [[Greek Esdras|2 Izra]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]] || [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra-Nehemiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|1 Izra]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Book of Judith|Judith]] || [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]] || [[Book of Esther|Esther]] || [[Book of Esther|Esther]] || [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Latin Esdras|Izra Sutuel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Books of Maccabees|1 Machabees]] || [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]]
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Books of Maccabees|2 Machabees]] || [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Books of Maccabees|3 Maccabees]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Latin Esdras|3 Esdras]]
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Additions to Esther]]
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Machabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
 +
|  
 +
|-
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Machabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|3 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Books of Maccabees|4 Maccabees]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Meqabyan|Meqabyan]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Job|Iyov]] || [[Book of Job|Job]] || [[Book of Job|Job]] || [[Book of Job|Job]]
+
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Latin Esdras|3 Esdras]]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|4 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Book of Job|Iyov]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Tehillim]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
 +
|
 +
| (included with 2 Chronicles)
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Mishlei]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| [[Book of Proverbs|Messalë]]
 +
|-
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Proverbs|Tägsas]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Psalms|Tehillim]] || [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]] || [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]] || [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
+
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Qoheleth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
+
| [[Song of Solomon|Shir Hashirim]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Aisma Aismaton]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Proverbs|Mishlei]] || [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]] || [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]] || [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
+
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom of Solomon]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Qoheleth]] || [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]] || [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]] || [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
+
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]]
 +
| [[Sirach]]
 +
| [[Sirach]]
 +
| [[Sirach]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Song of Solomon|Shir Hashirim]] || [[Song of Solomon]] || [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]] || [[Song of Solomon|Aisma Aismaton]]
+
| [[Book of Isaiah|Yeshayahu]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]] || [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
+
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Yirmeyahu]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 +
| rowspan="4" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]<br />(with [[4 Baruch]])
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]] || [[Sirach]]
+
| [[Book of Lamentations|Eikhah]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Isaiah|Yeshayahu]] || [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]] || [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]] || [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 +
| [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 +
| [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Yirmeyahu]] || [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]] || [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]] || [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
 +
| [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Lamentations|Eikhah]] || [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]] || [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]] || [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Second Book of Baruch|2 Baruch]]
 +
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| || || rowspan="2" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]] || [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
+
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Yekhezqel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Yekhezqel]] || [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]] || [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]] || [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Additions to Daniel]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] || [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] || [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] || [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
| rowspan="12" | [[Trei Asar]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Osee]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="12" | [[Trei Asar]] || [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]] || [[Book of Hosea|Osee]] || [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]] || [[Book of Amos|Amos]] || [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]] || [[Book of Joel|Joel]] || [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]] || [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]] || [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]] || [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]] || [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Michaeas]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]] || [[Book of Micah|Michaeas]] || [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahium]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]] || [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]] || [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Sophonias]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]] || [[Book of Habakkuk|Sophonias]] || [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]] || [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]] || [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]]
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]] || [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]] || [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]] || [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]] || [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]] || [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]] || [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Josippon|Josippon]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
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The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.
 
The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.
  
* [[Additions to Esther]]
 
 
* [[Apocalypse of Abraham]]
 
* [[Apocalypse of Abraham]]
 
* [[Ascension of Isaiah]]
 
* [[Ascension of Isaiah]]
* [[2 Baruch]]
 
 
* [[3 Baruch]]
 
* [[3 Baruch]]
 
* [[Bel and the Dragon]]
 
* [[Bel and the Dragon]]
 
* [[Eldad and Modad]]
 
* [[Eldad and Modad]]
* [[Book of Enoch]]
 
 
* [[Second Book of Enoch]]
 
* [[Second Book of Enoch]]
 
* [[Greek Apocalypse of Moses]]
 
* [[Greek Apocalypse of Moses]]
Line 132: Line 456:
 
* [[Jannes and Jambres]]
 
* [[Jannes and Jambres]]
 
* [[Joseph and Aseneth]]
 
* [[Joseph and Aseneth]]
* [[Book of Jubilees]]
 
 
* [[Ladder of Jacob]]
 
* [[Ladder of Jacob]]
 
* [[Letter of Aristeas]]
 
* [[Letter of Aristeas]]
Line 150: Line 473:
  
 
==Capitalization==
 
==Capitalization==
I do not capitalize "old testament" unless I'm referring to a specific version like the Codex Alexandrinus Old Testament. I do this, not out of disrespect, but in accordance with the conventions of English usage. Because every major Christian denomination has their own old testament, you're not reading ''the'' Old Testament, but rather ''an'' old testament. In much the same way, "encyclopedia" is not capitalized because it is a category of book, but "Encyclopedia Britannica" is capitalized because it is a specific book in the category of encyclopedias.
+
I do not capitalize "old testament" unless I'm referring to a specific version like the Codex Alexandrinus Old Testament. I do this, not out of disrespect, but in accordance with the conventions of English usage. Since every major Christian denomination has their own old testament, you're not reading ''the'' Old Testament, but rather ''an'' old testament. In much the same way, "encyclopedia" is not capitalized because it is a category of book, but "Encyclopedia Britannica" is capitalized because it is a specific book in the category of encyclopedias.
  
For the same reason, I do not capitalize "bible," however, I do capitalize "New Testament" since there is effectively only one across Christianity. I also capitalize the individual books included in the compilations; there is variation, but not enough to warrant calling them a category rather than a specific book.
+
For the same reason, I do not capitalize "bible," however, I do capitalize "New Testament" since there is effectively only one across Christianity. I also capitalize the individual books included in the compilations; there is variation in all of them, but not enough to warrant calling them a category rather than a specific book.
  
 
==Criticisms==
 
==Criticisms==
 
===Canon===
 
===Canon===
Christians have been arguing for 2,000 years (and Jews for centuries earlier) over which writings should be considered canon, and they continue to disagree to this day. If Yahweh wanted a specific canon, why didn't he reveal it to everyone everywhere? Why allow for ambiguity or debate to decide which writings are endorsed by Yahweh? Do any of them have the correct canon, and, if so, are all other denominations guilty of blasphemy for using the wrong canon? Did they fail as Christians because their bible contained books that taught them to behave differently than later Christians?
+
Christians have been arguing for 2,000 years (and Jews for centuries earlier) over which writings should be considered canon, and they continue to disagree to this day. If Yahweh wanted a specific canon, why didn't he reveal it to everyone everywhere? Why allow for ambiguity or debate to decide which writings are endorsed by Yahweh? How can we know what the correct canon should be? Do any of them have it right? Are those who have it wrong guilty of blasphemy, and will Yahweh punish them?
  
 
===Authorship===
 
===Authorship===
There is much conjecture and debate about the authors of the books in the old testament canon. In most of the books, the author doesn't identify himself, and historians believe that the majority of the books are not written by either the traditionally accepted authors or the the authors named in the books.
+
There is much conjecture and debate about the authors of the books in the old testament canon. In most of the books, the author doesn't identify himself, and expert historians believe that the majority of the books are not written by either the traditionally accepted authors or the the authors named in the books.
  
 
===Content===
 
===Content===
We should expect books inspired by a god to be rife with deep philosophical wisdom, full of inexplicable insight on the very foundations of the universe, and written in the most interesting way possible, but the actual content of the books of the old testament is unimpressive. Large sections of the book are dedicated to pointless lineages, bizarre animal sacrifice rituals, and long lists of strange taboos. Many stories are written multiple times in contradicting ways. Rather than provide deep wisdom, science, or enlightened morality, the authors speak of conventional wisdom of the time, describe science in basic and often flawed ways, promote slavery, encourage rape, and various other forms of barbarism. Rather than be written in an exciting manner, the book is so poorly written that most Christians who claim to believe it is the most important book ever still quickly lose interest and stop reading it.
+
We should expect books inspired by a god to be rife with deep philosophical wisdom, full of inexplicable insight on the very foundations of the universe, and written in the most interesting way possible, but the actual content of the books of the old testament is unimpressive. Large sections of the book are dedicated to pointless lineages, gruesome animal sacrifice rituals, and long lists of strange taboos. Many stories are written multiple times in contradicting ways. Rather than provide deep wisdom, science, or enlightened morality, the authors speak in the conventional wisdom of the time, describe science in basic and often flawed ways, promote slavery, encourage rape, and a host of other forms of barbarism. Rather than be written in an exciting manner, the book is so poorly written that most Christians who claim to believe it is the most important book ever written still quickly lose interest and stop reading it.
  
 
===Redaction===
 
===Redaction===
Most of the books of the old testament show signs of redaction, some to a staggering degree. The Torah is so disjointed that historians have proposed various solutions like the [[Documentary Hypothesis]] to account for it. None of the earliest surviving manuscripts match each other perfectly, so there are a large number of sentences where we can't say with certainty what the original wrote.
+
Most of the books of the old testament show signs of redaction, some to a staggering degree. The Torah is so disjointed that historians have proposed various solutions like the [[Documentary Hypothesis]] to account for it. None of the earliest surviving manuscripts match each other perfectly, so there are a large number of sentences where we don't know what was written in the original.
  
 
==Links==
 
==Links==

Latest revision as of 17:02, 10 October 2019

An old testament is an assortment of mostly Jewish books compiled by Christians and used as the first segment of their bible, accounting for about three quarters of the total compilation. The specific books in an old testament, what they should be titled, and how they should be presented differ among every major denomination of the religion, but each branch seems to agree that all of the content considered canon by most Jews in their Tanakh should be included.

Christians refer to the these books as the old testament because they believe that the covenant between Yahweh and humankind was ended through the torture and execution of Jesus, and that, before he was killed, Jesus gave humans a new covenant which is described in their New Testament. Jews, however, do not believe the original covenant between them and Yahweh has ended because, Yahweh says dozens of times in the Tanakh that the covenant will never end, Jews don't believe Jesus was the messiah, and, even if he was, they don't believe the messiah could discontinue the covenant.

Canon

The table below shows which books each denomination considers canon and how the group the books, however, the order of presentation is not preserved.

Hebrew (24) Protestant (39) Catholic (46) Eastern Orthodox (50) Church of the East (50) Oriental Orthodox (46)
Bereishit Genesis Genesis Genesis Genesis Genesis
Shemot Exodus Exodus Exodus Exodus Exodus
Vayikra Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus
Bamidbar Numbers Numbers Numbers Numbers Numbers
Devarim Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy
Yehoshua Joshua Josue Iesous Joshua Joshua
Shofetim Judges Judges Judges Judges Judges
Rut Ruth Ruth Ruth Ruth Ruth
Shemuel 1 Samuel 1 Kings 1 Kingdoms 1 Samuel Samuel
2 Samuel 2 Kings 2 Kingdoms 2 Samuel
Melakhim 1 Kings 3 Kings 3 Kingdoms 1 Kings Kings
2 Kings 4 Kings 4 Kingdoms 2 Kings
Divrei Hayamim 1 Chronicles 1 Paralipomenon 1 Paralipomenon 1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles 2 Paraleipomenon 2 Paraleipomenon 2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles
(with Prayer of Manasseh)
Jubilees
Enoch
1 Esdras 2 Izra
Ezra-Nehemiah Ezra 1 Esdras 2 Esdras Ezra 1 Izra
Nehemiah 2 Esdras Nehemiah
Izra Sutuel
Tobias Tobit Tobit Tobit
Judith Judith Judith Judith
Esther Esther Esther Esther Esther Esther
Additions to Esther
1 Machabees 1 Maccabees 1 Maccabees
2 Machabees 2 Maccabees 2 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
Meqabyan
3 Esdras
4 Maccabees
Iyov Job Job Job Job Job
Tehillim Psalms Psalms Psalms Psalms Psalms
Prayer of Manasseh (included with 2 Chronicles)
Mishlei Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Messalë
Tägsas
Qoheleth Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes
Shir Hashirim Song of Solomon Canticle of Canticles Aisma Aismaton Song of Songs Song of Songs
Wisdom Wisdom Wisdom Wisdom of Solomon
Ecclesiasticus Sirach Sirach Sirach
Yeshayahu Isaiah Isaias Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah
Yirmeyahu Jeremiah Jeremias Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah
(with 4 Baruch)
Eikhah Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations
Baruch Baruch Baruch
Letter of Jeremiah Letter of Jeremiah
2 Baruch
Yekhezqel Ezekiel Ezechiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel
Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel
Additions to Daniel
Trei Asar Hosea Osee Hosea Hosea Hosea
Amos Amos Amos Amos Amos
Joel Joel Joel Joel Joel
Obadiah Abdias Obadiah Obadiah Obadiah
Jonah Jonas Jonah Jonah Jonah
Micah Michaeas Micah Micah Micah
Nahum Nahum Nahum Nahum Nahium
Habakkuk Sophonias Habakkuk Habakkuk Habakkuk
Zephaniah Sophonias Zephaniah Zephaniah Zephaniah
Haggai Aggaeus Haggai Haggai Haggai
Zechariah Zacharias Zechariah Zechariah Zechariah
Malachi Malachias Malachi Malachi Malachi
Josippon

Additional Writings

The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.

Capitalization

I do not capitalize "old testament" unless I'm referring to a specific version like the Codex Alexandrinus Old Testament. I do this, not out of disrespect, but in accordance with the conventions of English usage. Since every major Christian denomination has their own old testament, you're not reading the Old Testament, but rather an old testament. In much the same way, "encyclopedia" is not capitalized because it is a category of book, but "Encyclopedia Britannica" is capitalized because it is a specific book in the category of encyclopedias.

For the same reason, I do not capitalize "bible," however, I do capitalize "New Testament" since there is effectively only one across Christianity. I also capitalize the individual books included in the compilations; there is variation in all of them, but not enough to warrant calling them a category rather than a specific book.

Criticisms

Canon

Christians have been arguing for 2,000 years (and Jews for centuries earlier) over which writings should be considered canon, and they continue to disagree to this day. If Yahweh wanted a specific canon, why didn't he reveal it to everyone everywhere? Why allow for ambiguity or debate to decide which writings are endorsed by Yahweh? How can we know what the correct canon should be? Do any of them have it right? Are those who have it wrong guilty of blasphemy, and will Yahweh punish them?

Authorship

There is much conjecture and debate about the authors of the books in the old testament canon. In most of the books, the author doesn't identify himself, and expert historians believe that the majority of the books are not written by either the traditionally accepted authors or the the authors named in the books.

Content

We should expect books inspired by a god to be rife with deep philosophical wisdom, full of inexplicable insight on the very foundations of the universe, and written in the most interesting way possible, but the actual content of the books of the old testament is unimpressive. Large sections of the book are dedicated to pointless lineages, gruesome animal sacrifice rituals, and long lists of strange taboos. Many stories are written multiple times in contradicting ways. Rather than provide deep wisdom, science, or enlightened morality, the authors speak in the conventional wisdom of the time, describe science in basic and often flawed ways, promote slavery, encourage rape, and a host of other forms of barbarism. Rather than be written in an exciting manner, the book is so poorly written that most Christians who claim to believe it is the most important book ever written still quickly lose interest and stop reading it.

Redaction

Most of the books of the old testament show signs of redaction, some to a staggering degree. The Torah is so disjointed that historians have proposed various solutions like the Documentary Hypothesis to account for it. None of the earliest surviving manuscripts match each other perfectly, so there are a large number of sentences where we don't know what was written in the original.

Links

Link-Wikipedia.png  Link-GoodReads.png